The Last Supper Da Vinci - A Look Inside The Last Supper Painting (2023)

CAt the last supper with his disciples, Jesus proclaimed, "Most truly, I say to you, one of you will betray me" (John 13:21). The 12 apostles of Jesus reacted when they heard these words. Here is one of the more complex visual representations of this biblical account:The last supperPainting by Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci.


  • 1 Artist Summary: Who was Leonardo da Vinci?
  • 2 Da Vinci's Last Supper in context
    • 2.1 Context analysis: a short socio-historical review
    • 2.2 Formal analysis: a brief description of the composition
  • 3 Facts About The Last Supper Painting
    • 3.1 Da Vinci's Preparatory Sketches
    • 3.2 Copies of the original Last Supper
    • 3.3 Conspiracy theories about the picture of the Last Supper
  • 4 Withstand the test of time
  • 5 Frequently Asked Questions
    • 5.1 Who painted the Last Supper?
    • 5.2 Where is the painting The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci?
    • 5.3 Why does Da Vinci's Last Supper fall apart?
    • 5.4 Did Jesus have his feet in da Vinci's Last Supper?

Artist Summary: Who was Leonardo da Vinci?

Leonardo da Vinci(1452-1519) was an Italian polymath and genius. He was an artist duringHochrenaissancePeriod. He was a famous painter at the time, but other aspects of his work have lived on, such as his notebooks and drawings on subjects ranging from botany to astronomy. Da Vinci's art is among the most popular masterpieces in the world, including some of his famous onesMona Lisa(a 1503), theVitruvian Man(c. 1490), miThe last supper(around 1495 to 1498).

The Last Supper Da Vinci - A Look Inside The Last Supper Painting (1)(Ham)Self-Portrait(a 1512) von Leonardo da Vinci;Leonardo da Vinci, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

The last supperby da Vinci in context

The last supperLeonardo da Vinci's painting is one of the most artistically astute paintings to be seen not only since the 15th centuryºCentury, but also today - is really timeless. Below we discuss some of the historical context of the painting and the detailed techniques used to create it. Due to various background and environmental factors, the painting has deteriorated over the years and lost most of its originality. However, after several restorations, we can still experience this biblical masterpiece.

ArtistLeonardo da Vinci
painted dateAround 1495 to 1498
AverageTemperament uOil paintingin plaster (not fresh)
GenderReligious history painting
PeriodItalian High Renaissance
Dimensions4,6 x 8,8 Meter
Series / VersionsNot applicable
Where is he staying?Kloster Santa Maria delle Grazie, Mailand
WertNot available

Context analysis: A brief socio-historical overview

The last supperby Leonardo da Vinci began around 1495 and was completed around 1498. Many ask: “Where isThe last supperPainting?” because it is not in any of the major art galleries or museums. It was painted on the wall of the dining room, also known as the refectory, of the Dominican monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan. It was commissioned by the Duke of Milan , Ludovico Sforza, as part of a family mausoleum rebuilt from a church It was not a refectory when da Vinci began painting.

The Last Supper Da Vinci - A Look Inside The Last Supper Painting (2)The last supper(restored) by Leonardo da Vinci, 1495-1498;Leonardo da Vinci, public domain, via Wikimedia CommonsS

A "series of unfortunate events": the recovery ofThe last supper

There is a story behind the da Vinci restorationThe last supper; the painting has, so to speak, gone through a long and arduous journey to preserve its form. Unfortunately, the moment Da Vinci started to paint, the process of decay began.The last supperdue to certain materials you have used. We will discuss this in more detail in the formal analysis below.

The Santa María Monastery was also in an area of ​​greater humidity and flooding. Therefore, the paint absorbed moisture from various sources, including steam from the kitchen. Not only did this result in it being painted onto a thin exterior wall, it also resulted in the paint peeling off the wall.

The painting gradually and naturally deteriorated from 1517, as many testify. As the Italian historianGiorgio Vasari, saw the conditionThe last supperIn the mid-16th century he would have referred to it as "punctual confusion". At that time, the Italian Mannerist painter Giovanni Paulo Lomazzo would have said that "the painting is completely ruined".

Restoration began around 1726 and lasted into the 20th century.

However, the various restoration efforts continued to aggravate the painting. Some used oil paint and varnish to fill in the gaps, others abandoned previous restorations and started over. Some restorers also attempted to move the wall to a safer location, but caused damage in the process and so attempted to glue the pieces together.

The Last Supper Da Vinci - A Look Inside The Last Supper Painting (3)The last supper(before restoration) by Leonardo da Vinci, 1495-1498;Leonardo da Vinci, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

In addition to environmental factors, external forces also contributed to the destruction of the painting. Napoleon's troops used the refectory as stables in 1796 when they took Milan. These troops also hurled rocks and stones at the painting, and some would have gouged out the apostle's eyes. The dining room was also temporarily used as a prison.

In the early 20th century, various restorers cleaned the painting and achieved some level of restoration, but during World War II in 1943, a bombing raid on Milan left parts of Santa Maria delle Grazie in ruins, including the refectory ceiling. . . EITHERThe last supperThe painting was protected and padded with mattresses, sandbags and pillows.

During the remodeling of the dining room, the painting continued to be exposed to the air, causing further deterioration, but the restoration proceeded.

The painting has been covered with a protective resin to prevent moisture damage and most of the paint has been removed by other restoration work over the years. In the late 1970s, restorer Pinin Brambilla Barcilon undertook the larger-scale restoration work, which lasted 21 years. The restoration process included scraping off the old paint from previous restorations and creating an air-conditioned dining room.

The restored painting was finally released to the public in 1999 and received considerable criticism for its appearance; There was some debate as to whether it was more "off" or really more than that.The last supperOriginal. Some critics, such as British artist Michael Daley, commented that the painting should not have been restored and that (the restoration) left it (the painting) with a "20th-century character".

The director of the Florence Restoration Institute, Giorgio Bonsanti, believes that the restoration has gone well. He reportedly said: "I think they did a very good job. What was there was recovered; What was added was done with full reversibility. I think it's far better to see 20% of Leonardo's original than something that's 100% fake."

"The Last Supper" has certainly been an elusive painting since it was painted, largely due to its deterioration and countless restorations. Some critics even called it "The Lost Dinner". The recent 21-year restoration allows us to see new (or just original) aspects of this Renaissance masterpiece.

The last supperOriginal shows us aspects that were previously hidden or changed. For example, a thousand decorative flowers can be seen on the curtain, and some parts of the landscape have been detailed in the window behind the seated figure of Christ. In addition, some of the disciples' original facial features were altered, showing them beardless, with open mouths, and other features such as altered head, eye, and hand positions.

Formal analysis: a brief description of the composition

Next, let's take a closer look at theThe last supperpainting and discuss da Vinci's ability to bridge the gap between artistic aesthetics, mathematics and geometry in this composition. There's a lot going on in this painting and da Vinci certainly didn't randomly place all the players, even though they may appear that way.

The Last Supper Da Vinci - A Look Inside The Last Supper Painting (4)of Leonardo da VinciÖThe last supper, cropped to show only the three disciples on the right side of the table;Katolophyromai, CC0, via Wikimedia Commons


The last supperthe painting is a snapshot of the moment when Christ tells his apostles that one of them will betray him; "Truly I say to you, one of you will betray me" (John 13:21). The painting shows how each apostle reacts in a unique way. This also happens at the last supper with Jesus before the handover to the authorities informed by Judas.

Most of the composition is occupied by a long horizontal table, in the center of which Christ is seated with his twelve apostles left and right. The characters are all in front of us, the spectators. We notice three vertical windows behind the figures, the central window just behind Christ emphasizing his figure and importance. The exterior, seen through these windows, suggests a lush green mountain landscape.

The Last Supper Da Vinci - A Look Inside The Last Supper Painting (5)A scalloped detail of Christ in Leonardo da VinciThe last supper(1495-1498), View of Landscape from Window Behind Him;Leonardo da Vinci, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

The interior features a geometric architectural space with four vertical tapestries hung on either side of the walls flanking the figures. At the bottom of the painting, just below the figure of Christ, where his feet might have been, is an empty section: here, years ago, a door was cut into the wall of the refectory. Some sources also suggest that da Vinci depicted Christ's feet as we see him hanging on the cross.

On the dining table, we notice the white tablecloth with a lace pattern, wine glasses, water jugs, pewter bowls and dishes such as buns, fish, fruit and also wine.

Sitting at the table, the figures are divided into four groups of three. Originally only the figures of Jesus, Judas, John and Peter were identifiable, however other sources (allegedly da Vinci's notebooks and other copies of this painting) have enabled all of the figures to be identified. Each group also expresses a specific emotional response when hearing the message from Jesus.

The first group consists, from far left to right, of Bartolomeu, Tiago Menor (or son of Alfeu) and André, whose hands are raised as if to indicate that he is stopping or slowing down; The three characters express feelings of surprise.

The Last Supper Da Vinci - A Look Inside The Last Supper Painting (6)A vintage by Leonardo da VinciThe last supper(1495-1498), representing on the far left Bartolomé, Santiago Menor (or son of Alfeo) and Andrés;Show file name or category, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

The next sentence begins with Peter leaning towards John, whose head is tilted to the left towards Peter. Peter's left hand rests on John's right shoulder. John's hands are clasped and resting on the table. He is also the youngest of the Twelve Apostles and is described as "faint".

If we look closely, we also notice that Pedro's right hand is holding a knife, but his arm and hand seem out of proportion. This has been dubbed the "disembodied hand" because the right shoulder and elbow are not anatomically aligned with the hand. However, this could also be because Peter seems to be resting his hand on his hip while holding the knife, making it seem disjointed.

Also, this knife is a revealing symbol of the upcoming incident in which Peter will attempt to defend Jesus while he is being arrested in the Garden of Gethsemane. This is from the verse in the Gospel of John (18:10): “So Simon Peter drew a sword and struck the servant of the high priest and cut off his right ear. (The servant's name was Malchus)".

Judas Iscariot is seated next to Peter, but appears more in front of Peter and John in the painting. An important point is that in other paintings of this scene Judas is usually depicted separately from the other apostles. we see itThe last supper(1447) to the firstRenaissance-MalerAndrew del Castano.

The Last Supper Da Vinci - A Look Inside The Last Supper Painting (7)The last supper(1445-1450) vonAndrea del Castano;Andrea del Castagno, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Da Vinci portrayed him with all the other apostles, but with differences. For example, his head is depicted on a lower compositional level than the heads of the other apostles. He wears blue, green, and red robes. His right shoulder is resting on the table and he seems shocked or surprised by the news. He is clearly on a different "level" than the other apostles, which is what sets him apart.

He also holds a bag of money in his right hand, which may be the money (silver) he received for betraying Jesus. He also drops a pot of salt, which is a symbol of a bad omen. His left hand grasps a bowl on the table, and in the same way Christ's right hand grasps the same bowl.

This could be a reference to the Bible verse in Matthew 26 when the disciples asked, "You do not mean me, Lord?" and Jesus replied, "Whoever put his hand in the bowl with me will betray me."

In the center is the figure of Jesus Christ. His face is open, indicating that he is blessing food and wine, also known as the Blessed Sacrament and the Eucharist. This is from Matthew 26 in the Bible where Jesus says, “Take and eat; this is my body" and after drinking from the cup: "Drink from it, everyone. This is my blood of the covenant, which is shed for many for the forgiveness of sins."

The Last Supper Da Vinci - A Look Inside The Last Supper Painting (8)A detail of Leonardo da VinciThe last supper(1495-1498), depicts Thomas raising his index finger to Christ;Leonardo da Vinci,CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

As we look at the next group of three figures to the right (Jesus' left), we notice James with his arms open, illustrating a shocked reaction. Beside him, but emerging almost behind him, is Thomas, whose only point of recognition is his raised index finger.

The raised index finger is possibly a connection to Christ's resurrection and when Thomas had to heal Jesus' wounds by touching them with his own hands. Finally we see Philip with a questioning expression on his face, as if urging Jesus for an explanation.

This again points to the verse, "You do not mean me, Lord?"

The final group of three shows Mateo and Judas Tadeu confronting Simon the Zealot, who we see sitting on either side of Jesus at the end of the table. Apparently, Mateo and Tadeo are questioning Simon, looking for an answer as to what happens after Jesus breaks the news.

Geometric symbolism inThe last supperby DaVinci

We mention several symbolic references, particularly in relation to the 12 apostles of Jesus. However, there are other symbolic references related to the use of geometry and the number three that can refer to theHoly Trinity.

We see the latter in the four groups of three apostles, the three windows in the background and, most importantly, the figure of Christ has a triangular shape. Its shape is equilateral (with all sides being equal), with the top point being your head, the two sides being your outstretched arms, and the base of the triangle appearing where the table meets your torso.

The geometry used here also suggests the idea of ​​divinity, which includes the semicircular shape (also reminiscent of a circle) above the window just behind the figure of Christ.

The Last Supper Da Vinci - A Look Inside The Last Supper Painting (9)The triangular figure of Christ reflected in the space between him and John;Leonardo da Vinci, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

The use of geometry dates back to Greek philosophy and here we see that influence on da Vinci's work. It also suggests the Neoplatonic thought ofRebirthzeit, which marked a renaissance of classical philosophical thought. It was based on Plato's philosophies about the world beyond the material world and the idea of ​​perfection and beauty, which was also adopted by various figures who follow Christian ideals.

Another symbolic aspect that has been suggested is how da Vinci distinguished the spiritual and material worlds by placing the horizontal table between them. The figures are also densely grouped in the foreground next to the table, suggesting the material, earthly plane. Heaven or paradise is suggested behind the figures.

The Last Supper Da Vinci - A Look Inside The Last Supper Painting (10)A golden section by Da VinciThe last supper, indicating the platonic proportions of the painting;Leonardo da Vinci, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

In addition, the simple design of the interior also eliminates all unnecessary distractions in the painting, and we find only the necessary elements that indicate existence beyond the material world.

Nor did Da Vinci paint a halo over Jesus' head, which we will see in other paintings depicting this sacrament scene. Some sources suggest that he was not a strictly religious man and believed in nature, which is why he chose to portray common people as apostles.

Image technique: color, light and texture

a big part ofThe last supperof Leonardo da Vinci is the choice of the pictorial medium used. Unfortunately, however, in the artist's attempt to depict richer colors, this choice contributed to the deterioration of the painting and a seemingly endless restoration effort.

Da Vinci did not paintThe last supperhow fresh.frescoesThey are made with water-soluble color pigments that are applied to a fresh layer of wet plaster and are calledvery cool, which means “really fresh” in Italian. This technique had to be done efficiently and quickly as the plaster dried within a few hours.

Da Vinci wanted to use colors that contrasted with the colors in the fresco, so he combined different mediums such as oil paints and tempera on a double coat of dry plaster.

He primed the wall with plaster, tar and putty. He applied a white lead primer, which gave the paintings more luminosity, a technique typically used in panel painting. On a stone wall, this technique was not as successful as the paint began to peel off after a few years of application.

The Last Supper Da Vinci - A Look Inside The Last Supper Painting (11)A detail from Da VinciThe last supper, which illustrates the pictorial techniques used by the artist to achieve contrasts of light and dark;Leonardo da Vinci, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Da Vinci also uses chiaroscuro andcolor Techniques to create visual depth through color contrasts of light and dark. We see these contrasts of light and dark particularly at the front of the picture plane, which moves inward towards the figure of Christ. Areas near walls appear darker and more shadowy.

This technique also allowed the artist to remove excessive bold or sharper outlines.color, meaning smoked, is also a color mixing technique. This also creates a more natural gradation of tones and contours, making the painting look blurry and realistic overall.

The painting's texture has been described as "grainy and fragmented", which da Vinci is said to have done on purpose, but also as a result of a stone wall's continued deterioration over time.

The Last Supper Da Vinci - A Look Inside The Last Supper Painting (12)a cut out detailThe last supper(1495-1498) by Leonardo da Vinci, depicting the fragmented texture of the painting;Leonardo da Vinci, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

perspective and scale

There is a clever use of lines to show perspectiveThe last supperDiagram. Da Vinci was a master at incorporating mathematical elements to create visual symmetry. The head of Jesus is the main vanishing point of the perspective lines, also called orthogonal lines, which are part of what creates the single-point linear perspective in this painting.

These also emphasize the central and most important figure of the composition, namely Christ. An interesting fact about da Vinci's method of achieving point perspective is that he hammered a nail into the wall to indicate where he started.

Da Vinci also uses aerial perspective in the exterior landscape. It looks blurry and atmospheric, which creates a sense of depth. Additionally, the use of more opaque colors adds to that sense of distance in the background.

The Last Supper Da Vinci - A Look Inside The Last Supper Painting (13)The last supper(1495-1498) von Leonardo da Vinci an der Wand des Refektoriums von Santa Maria delle Grazie;Leonardo da Vinci, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

As the painting was painted on the wall of the refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie, it is large in size, measuring 4.6 by 8.8 meters (29 ft long and 15 ft high). Along with the skillful use of perspective,The last supperit looks like it is part of the room it is painted in and viewers appear to be part of the dinner scene.

Imagine looking at the dinner scene during supper in the refectory, which was one of the intentions of the symbology of this painting, intended to accompany the monks' meals.

facts aboutThe last supperGrind

Below we discuss some interesting facts about Da Vinci's work.The last supperPainting, from using preliminary sketches to study people's facial expressions to making important copies of the painting to help us see what it looked like in the beginning. We will also talk about some conspiracy theories about the symbolism and subject of the painting.

Da Vinci's Preparatory Sketches

Da Vinci made a considerable number of preliminary sketches for theThe last supperDiagram. He would have studied different people and their different facial expressions and what their movements looked like. These were for his depictions of the twelve apostles.

The facial features of the twelve apostles were evidently those of the common people in Milan. Some sources also suggest that da Vinci found a real criminal to model the features of the Judas figure in the painting; Da Vinci is believed to have visited the prisons of Milan to find the perfect model.

The Last Supper Da Vinci - A Look Inside The Last Supper Painting (14)Studying for the Last Supper(1494-1495) von Leonardo da Vinci;Leonardo da Vinci, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

copies ofThe last supperOriginal

Another important part ofThe last supperPainting, ironically they are all copies of painting. Several copies have been made over the years. Two important specimens come from theItalian painters, Giampietrino (c. 1520), which is in the Royal Academy of Arts, London, and Cesare da Sesto (c. 1520), which is in the Church of St. John. Ambrogio in the district of Ponte Capriasca in Switzerland. Both artists were believed to have been in da Vinci's life and circle, possibly as his assistants.

The paintings are important copies that give details about the original of The Last Supper. In fact, Giampietrino's copy served as a reference for the major restoration of the 1970s.

Other more contemporary specimens of theThe last supperColor and style wereappropriated and deconstructed by artistslike the surrealist Salvador DalíThe Sacrament of the Last Supper(1955), artist pop Andy WarholThe last supper(1986), von Susan Dorothea Whitethe first dinner(1988), the work of feminist artist Mary Beth EdelsonSome Living American Artists / The Last Supper(1972) and many others.

The Last Supper Da Vinci - A Look Inside The Last Supper Painting (15)Postcard fromThe last supperpublished by Da Vinci en o before 1904;unknown anonymous author, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

conspiracy theories aboutThe last supperGrind

The last supperby da Vinci has been the subject of countless religious conspiracy theories and has become a symbol of mystery with "hidden" messages. A common conspiracy theory worth noting is the figure of John seated on the right side of Jesus (our left), who was reported to actually be Mother Mary.

Almost all paintings of the Last Supper prior to da Vinci's version depict John in a female manner, and da Vinci also copied the key features of these earlier depictions. We will note that the figure of John always has a lazy posture, usually depicted lying or asleep next to Jesus. He was also described in the Gospel of John as "the disciple whom Jesus loved."

The Last Supper Da Vinci - A Look Inside The Last Supper Painting (16)Detail of the "beloved disciple" to Jesus' right, identified by art historians as the apostle John, but speculated in the 2003 book.The da Vinci Codeand similar works as Mary Magdalene;Leonardo da Vinci, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Examples of John in other paintings are Duccio di BouninsegnaThe last supper(1325), by Andrea del CastagnoThe last supper(1445 bis 1450), y a de Domenico GhirlandaioThe last supper(1486), which may have influenced the way in which Da Vinci developed his painting.

Leonardo da Vinci was also known for portraying his model with feminine qualities.

An example can be seen in his painting entitledSaint John Baptist(around 1513 to 1516). It is also believed that Mother Mary is depicted with the apostles in other Last Supper paintings, such as Fra Angelico's painting.The last supper(1442) we see a kneeling woman in the left corner. This would make the idea of ​​his presence in da Vinci's painting less mysterious.

It has been reported that other symbols such as an "M" were embedded in the center of the composition, undoubtedly representing Mary Magdalene. The booksThe Templar Revelation(1997) Lynn Picknett eThe Holy Blood and the Holy Grail(1982) by Michael Baigent, Henry Lincoln, and Richard Leigh were also influential in promoting this "speculation".The da Vinci Code(2003) by Dan Brown was also an influence on pop culture, introducing and expanding on many of the above theories.

The Last Supper Da Vinci - A Look Inside The Last Supper Painting (17)This image was created with no contrast shift, with 50% transparency overlaid in mirror image. The Secret Images in Da Vinci's WorkThe last supperThey are made visible by using da Vinci's classic “Mirror Code”. The original image seen through a mirror is overlaid on the original painting. the effects of romance,The da Vinci CodeAs for the censorship of the Mary Magdalene story, they are unequivocal... The Holy Grail is faded but clearly outlined as a large ornate chalice that serves as the centerpiece of the table. As you look at each of Jesus Christ's badly wounded hands, you can look at his face and find his gaze following yours, moving from hand to hand. Leonardo Da Vinci appears face to face with the viewer in a self-portrait wearing a metal helmet on the two outer edges of the canvas;The Rikviers,CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Withstand the tests of time

ÖThe last supperThe painting is a testament to the skill and precision of one of the greatest artists of the Renaissance, Leonardo da Vinci, who painted and depicted a famous scene in Christian art: that of the biblical Last Supper.The last supperIn fact, the painting has been through almost everything a painting can and probably shouldn't go through.

From decay, destruction, countless restorations and endless speculations, it has remained intact on the wall of the refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie. It is now protected in the air-conditioned room and can only be viewed by several visitors at the same time for a few minutes.

Check out oursThe history of the painting of the last supperHere!

frequently asked questions

who paintedÖ The last supper?

The biblical scene in which Christ takes his last supper with his disciples has been the subject of countless paintings throughout European history andchristian art. There were many artists who painted the Last Supper scene, however, the High Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci didThe last supper, begun around 1495 and completed around 1498, is one of the most popular versions.

Where isThe last supper¿Paintings by Leonardo da Vinci?

The last supperThe painting by Leonardo da Vinci was painted on the wall of the dining room (or refectory) in the Dominican monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan. It was commissioned by the Duke of Milan, Ludovico Sforza, as part of a family mausoleum rebuilt from a church. It wasn't a dining room when Da Vinci started painting.

Why is Da Vinci's Last Supper falling apart?

Ever since Da Vinci began to paintThe last supper, began to deteriorate due to the materials used. The refectory of the Santa María Convent, where the painting is located, is also in an area of ​​higher humidity and flooding. The paint absorbed moisture from various sources, including steam from the kitchen. It was also painted on a thin exterior wall and the paint started peeling off the wall.

Jesus has his feet onThe last supperby DaVinci?

Yes, but in the 1650s a door was opened in the refectory wall just below the figure of Jesus, whose feet were also cut off. In other copies ofThe last supperpaintings we can see the feet of Jesus, as in the painting by GiampietrinoThe last supper(c. 1520), housed in the Royal Academy of Arts, London.

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